Malas prácticas bancarias

Munich – Después de la crisis de la deuda de 1982, la crisis de las sociedades de ahorro y préstamo de finales de los ochenta en Estados Unidos y la crisis financiera de Asia de 1997, la crisis de las hipotecas subprime es la cuarta crisis importante desde la Segunda Guerra Mundial y, por mucho, la mayor. Según el FMI, las pérdidas totales en términos de cancelación de deudas incobrables en los balances será de aproximadamente 1 billón de dólares a nivel mundial, y las instituciones financieras estadounidenses probablemente llevarán la peor parte. Dado que el capital social combinado de todas las instituciones financieras de Estados Unidos es de aproximadamente 1.2 billones de dólares, esta cifra es enorme.

¿Por qué suceden las crisis bancarias? ¿Acaso los banqueros son ignorantes? ¿Por qué aseguran riesgos que llevan a sus bancos al borde de la bancarrota? La respuesta está en una combinación de un sistema de contabilidad malo y varios efectos de riesgo moral que los sistemas normativos existentes no pudieron limitar.

El sistema de contabilidad malo son las Normas Internacionales de Información Financiera (NIIF) que actualmente utilizan las grandes empresas de todo el mundo. El defecto de las NIIF es que no mitigan el contagio sistémico que resulta de los movimientos de precios de los activos. Cuando los precios de los activos se mueven, las empresas propietarias de esos activos se ven obligadas a reevaluarlos en sus balances trimestre tras trimestre. La información oportuna de las ganancias y pérdidas no realizadas hace que las acciones de la compañía tenedora sean volátiles, lo que envía ondas de choque por todo el sistema financiero.

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