Legislar sobre la Historia

NUEVA YORK – En octubre, el Parlamento español aprobó una Ley de Memoria Histórica que prohíbe las concentraciones y monumentos en honor del difunto dictador Francisco Franco. Su régimen falangista será denunciado oficialmente y se honrará a sus víctimas.

Hay razones válidas para promulgar dicha ley. Muchas personas asesinadas por los fascistas durante la guerra civil española siguen olvidadas en fosas comunes. Aún hay cierta nostalgia de la dictadura franquista en la extrema derecha. A comienzos de este año hubo quienes se reunieron ante su tumba y salmodiaron: “¡Nosotros ganamos la guerra civil!”, al tiempo que denunciaban a los socialistas y a los extranjeros, en particular musulmanes, razón suficiente -podríamos pensar- para que el Primer Ministro socialista José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, en pro de la salud de la democracia, recurriera a la ley para exorcizar los demonios de la dictadura.

Pero la legislación es un instrumento inapropiado para abordar la Historia. Si bien el debate histórico en España no llegará demasiado lejos, la propia prohibición de las ceremonias en honor de tiempos pasados puede ser pasarse de la raya.  El deseo de controlar el pasado y el presente es, naturalmente, un rasgo común a las dictaduras. Se puede hacer mediante propaganda falsa, tergiversando la verdad u ocultando los hechos. Quien en China mencione lo que ocurrió en la plaza de Tiananmen (y en muchos otros sitios) en junio de 1989 no tardará en recibir el abrazo, no precisamente tierno, de la policía de la Seguridad del Estado. De hecho, gran parte de lo que ocurrió durante el período del Presidente Mao sigue siendo tabú.

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