立法历史

纽约——10月,西班牙议会通过了《历史记忆法》,禁止举行纪念已故独裁者弗朗西斯科·佛朗哥的集会和纪念仪式。佛朗哥的长枪党政权将遭到官方谴责,受害者则将得到纪念。

颁布上述法律的理由似是而非。西班牙内战中很多被法西斯杀害的人至今还躺在万人冢里不为人所知。而极右翼人士仍然对佛朗哥的独裁政权抱有一定的怀念之情。今年早些时候,人们一边在他的坟墓前集会吟唱“我们赢得了内战!”,一边谴责社会党党员和外国人,特别是穆斯林人。你也许认为,社会党总理何塞·路易斯·罗德里格斯·萨帕特罗为了确保民主的健康发展,举起法律武器驱走独裁妖魔是一件合情合理的事情。

但立法是限制历史的一种生硬的工具。尽管西班牙对历史的探讨不会超越限度,但即便是禁止举行纪念过去岁月的仪式可能也做得有些过分。勿庸置疑,控制过去和现在的愿望是独裁政权的普遍特点。它们可以通过虚假宣传、扭曲事实或压制真相来达到这样的目的。谈及1989年6月天安门广场(和许多其他地方)所发生事件的任何人会很快发现自己处于国家安全警察并不温柔的拥抱之中。事实上,毛主席当政时所发生的许多事情至今仍然被视为禁忌。

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