Čínský sen Indie

SOUL – V posledních letech se Čína a Indie staly globálními ekonomickými supervelmocemi, v čele je ovšem Čína. Jelikož však čínský růst zpomaluje a nutnost strukturální změny je čím dál akutnější, vzniká otázka, zda snahy nového indického premiéra Naréndry Módího o reformu ekonomiky umožní zemi Čínu dohonit.

Čína od 80. let zažívá bezprecedentní hospodářský růst, živený hojností laciné pracovní síly, vysokými měrami úspor a investic, podstatnými tržními reformami, politikami orientovanými na vnější svět a prozíravým makroekonomickým řízením. Tamní lídři teď doufají, že rozvojem technologicky důmyslnějších odvětví dosáhnou postavení země s vysokými příjmy.

Ekonomická výkonnost Indie je méně pozoruhodná. Hospodářský růst začal dramaticky zrychlovat počátkem 90. let, díky liberalizaci obchodu a dalším reformám ekonomiky. Pak reformy ustaly, vystřelil fiskální deficit i schodek běžného účtu a roční růst HDP klesl na 4-5 %.

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