Südkoreas feminine Zukunft

SEOUL – In den letzten 50 Jahren hat Südkorea beachtliche wirtschaftliche Fortschritte gemacht. Das Pro-Kopf-Einkommen stieg von lediglich 80 USD im Jahr 1960 auf über 22.000 USD im letzten Jahr. Aber das Potenzial des Landes für andauerndes Wachstum lässt nach. Grund dafür ist der bevorstehende Rückgang der Bevölkerung in arbeitsfähigem Alter – um voraussichtlich 25% bis 2050 – und wachsender Wettbewerb aus China und anderen Schwellenländern. Um seine Aussichten zu verbessern, braucht Südkorea wirtschaftliche Reformen und Umstrukturierung, mit einem Schwerpunkt auf der Maximierung seiner Humankapitalressourcen – insbesondere bei Frauen.

Südkoreas Erfolge der letzten 50 Jahre haben viel mit dem schnellen Wachstum der gut ausgebildeten Arbeitnehmerschaft des Landes zu tun. Zwischen 1960 und 2010 stieg der Anteil der Erwachsenen mit einer weiterführenden Schulausbildung von 20% auf eindrucksvolle 87%. Durch Produktivitätssteigerungen, steigende Investitionsrenditen sowie technologische Anpassung und Innovation wurden die in Südkorea im Überfluss vorhandenen gut ausgebildeten Arbeitnehmer zur Grundlage der exportorientierten Entwicklungsstrategie des Landes.

Aber das Potenzial der Frauen wird weiterhin zu wenig genutzt, was negative Folgen für die Wirtschaft hat. Wenn eine Wachstumsstrategie in Nordkorea erfolgreich sein soll, muss sie mehr und bessere Möglichkeiten für Frauen schaffen, einerseits durch die Einführung günstigerer Arbeitsumgebungen und andererseits durch die Schaffung eines vielfältigeren und flexibleren Ausbildungssystems.

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