La Corée du Nord est-elle en train de s’ouvrir aux entreprises ?

SEOUL – Le système de la Corée du Nord est un échec. Le pays est confronté à des contraintes énergétiques sévères et son économie stagne depuis 1990, présentant un revenu annuel par habitant estimé à $ 1,800, soit un peu plus de 5% de celui de la Corée du Sud. Pendant ce temps, une pénurie alimentaire a engendré la famine de 24 millions de Nord-Coréens et plus de 25 enfants sur 1000 meurent chaque année, contre quatre en Corée du Sud. Si elle veut survivre, l'économie la plus centralisée et la plus fermée du monde devra s’ouvrir.

Une Corée du Nord plus dynamique et prospère – ainsi que la paix et la stabilité sur la péninsule coréenne – servirait les intérêts non seulement de la Corée du Nord elle-même, mais aussi des pays voisins et de la communauté internationale. Après tout, l'effondrement brutal de la Corée du Nord ou un conflit militaire dans la péninsule porterait atteinte à la sécurité régionale, tout en imposant aux pays voisins de supporter des millions de réfugiés et de centaines de milliards de dollars en coûts de reconstruction.

Cela devrait inciter les institutions internationales et les pays voisins de la Corée du Nord à fournir l'aide alimentaire, l'assistance technique et les investissements directs dont le pays a besoin pour échapper à sa situation actuelle et transiter vers une économie de marché. Cependant, il reste d'importants obstacles à cette coopération – au premier rang desquels la politique obscure et souvent imprévisible du Nord, illustrée par la récente exécution de l’oncle de son leader Kim Jong-un, l’autrefois très puissant Jang Song-thaek.

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