El ejemplo libanés para Iraq

Los electores de Iraq se han pronunciado. Ahora un se debe formar un nuevo gobierno y redactar una nueva constitución. Paul Salem sostiene que Líbano puede servir de guía para aquellos iraquíes que buscan una constitución que pueda reconciliar a las comunidades chiítas, sunitas, kurdas y turkmenas del país.

Reconstruir a un país devastado por la guerra, partido por las divisiones internas y asediado por la intervención extranjera en una región del mundo tan volátil como el Medio Oriente es una de las tareas más difíciles que uno pueda imaginar. Si añadimos el deseo de crear de la nada una democracia en una zona caracterizada por los gobiernos autoritarios, la labor se vuelve casi imposible. Pero el reto ha sido superado con anterioridad, en Líbano, después de su espantosamente larga guerra civil (1975-1990). Tal vez algunas de las lecciones de esa experiencia se puedan aplicar a Iraq.

Tanto Líbano como Iraq contienen comunidades muy antiguas que viven dentro de las fronteras de Estados formados en el siglo XX. Aunque en ambos existe un fuerte sentimiento de nacionalismo moderno, las viejas comunidades étnicas y religiosas desempeñan un papel crítico en el diseño de la identidad política y de la vida pública.

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