Der Libanon als Vorbild für den Irak

Die irakischen Wähler haben gesprochen. Jetzt muss eine neue Regierung gebildet und eine neue Verfassung geschrieben werden. Der Libanon, so meint Paul Salem, könnte als Leitfaden für jene Iraker dienen, die nach einer Verfassung streben, auf deren Grundlage sich die schiitischen, sunnitischen, kurdischen und turkmenischen Volksgruppen aussöhnen können.

Der Wiederaufbau eines vom Krieg zerstörten und innerlich zerrissenen Landes, das eine ausländische Intervention über sich ergehen lassen musste und in einem so instabilen Teil der Welt wie dem Nahen Osten liegt, ist eine der gewaltigsten Aufgaben, die man sich vorstellen kann. Kommt dann noch der Wunsch hinzu, in einer Region, wo autoritäre Regierungen an der Tagesordnung stehen, eine Demokratie zu schaffen, so ist diese Aufgabe beinahe nicht zu bewältigen. Allerdings wurde eine derartige Herausforderung schon einmal gemeistert, und zwar im Libanon nach einem albtraumhaft langen Bürgerkrieg (1975-1990). Möglicherweise können aus den Erfahrungen im Libanon Lehren für den Irak gezogen werden.

Sowohl im Libanon als auch im Irak leben historische Volksgruppen in Staaten, deren Grenzen im 20. Jahrhundert gezogen wurden. Obwohl in beiden Ländern die moderne Form eines starken Nationalismus herrscht, spielen die alteingesessenen ethnischen und religiösen Gemeinschaften eine entscheidende Rolle bei der Prägung der politischen Identität und des öffentlichen Lebens.

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