L’Exemple du Liban pour l’Irak

Les électeurs irakiens se sont exprimés. Il faut maintenant former un nouveau gouvernement et préparer une nouvelle constitution. Selon Paul Salem, le Liban peut servir d'exemple aux Irakiens à la recherche d'une constitution qui puisse réconcilier les communautés chiites, sunites, kurdes et turkmènes du pays.

Reconstruire un pays dévasté par la guerre, déchiré par les divisions internes et assailli par l’intervention étrangère dans une région du monde aussi instable que le Moyen-Orient est une des tâches les plus décourageantes qu’on puisse imaginer. Ajoutons à cela le désir de créer une démocratie à partir de rien dans une région caractérisée par un gouvernement autoritaire et la tâche devient presque impossible. Mais ce défi a déjà été relevé, au Liban, après une longue et cauchemardesque guerre civile (1975 à 1990). Aussi y a-t-il peut-être là des leçons à tirer de cette expérience qui puissent être appliquée à l’Irak.

L’Irak et le Liban sont formés d’anciennes communautés rassemblées sous une seule frontière définie au 20ème siècle. Bien que ces deux pays connaissent un fort sens de nationalisme moderne, les anciennes communautés ethniques et religieuses jouent un rôle essentiel dans la formation des identités politiques et de la vie publique.

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