黎巴嫩:伊拉克的可借之鉴

伊拉克的选民们终于发出了自己的声音。如今,新政府成立和新宪法拟定势在必行。 Paul Salem 认为,对于那些正在寻找一部可以调和国内什叶派、逊尼派、库尔德人和土库曼人争端的宪法的伊拉克人,黎巴嫩也许能为他们提供导向。

全世界范围内,在像中东这样一块动荡不安的土地上重建一个满目战争疮痍、内部四分五裂、又遭外国干涉力量困扰的国家,其艰难程度难以想象。更不要说,还要在这块以专权政府闻名的地区从头创建一个民主制度,那简直就是不可能完成的任务。但是,黎巴嫩,在经历它如同噩梦般的持久内战(1975-1990)后,却成功应对了这一挑战。因此,黎巴嫩的某些经验能为伊拉克提供榜样。

黎巴嫩和伊拉克一样,拥有各自生活在20世纪划定的州界范围内的古老教派。尽管两者都存有一种强烈的现代民主主义感,但是古老的民族和宗教教派在塑造政治身份和公共生活方面扮演着决定性角色。

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