Aprender el arte de lo posible en América Latina

Poco después de ser elegido primer Presidente izquierdista del Uruguay, Tabaré Vázquez declaró: "Tenemos que reconstruir el futuro a partir de las limitaciones de nuestro tiempo". En toda América Latina se están produciendo reconstrucciones y transformaciones. Una "marea rosa" ha llevado a políticos como Vázquez al centro del escenario y a plantear un desafío a Norteamérica y a Europa. Las reformas y los altos precios de las materias primas están impulsando a la región. Las economías de América Latina están teniendo ahora unos buenos resultados que no habían tenido durante mucho tiempo.

Pero la reconstrucción no se hace de la noche a la mañana. Las "limitaciones" a las que se refería Vázquez son inmensas. América Latina dista mucho de poder competir con la potencia de China o la India y sigue teniendo la mayor diferencia entre ricos y pobres. El 10 por ciento más rico de su población gana casi la mitad de los ingresos totales, mientras que el 10 por ciento más pobre gana tan sólo el 1,6 por ciento. En cambio, el diez por ciento superior de los países industrializados gana el 29,1 por ciento de los ingreso totales, mientras que el diez por ciento inferior gana el 2,5 por ciento.

En el conjunto de América Latina y el Caribe, una de cada cuatro personas sobrevive con menos de dos dólares al día. Cincuenta millones de personas, el equivalente de toda la población del Reino Unido, se las arregla con menos de un dólar. Además, el 14 por ciento de los habitantes de la región carecen de ingresos suficientes para costearse la atención básica de salud. Existe una intensa impresión de corrupción e ineficiencia, por lo que no existe una gran confianza pública en las instituciones, mientras que recientemente la inversión en infraestructuras se ha reducido marcadamente.

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