L'art du possible en Amérique latine

"Nous devons reconstruire le futur au-delà des limites de notre temps", déclarait peu après son élection, Tabaré Vázquez, le premier président de gauche de l'Uruguay. L'Amérique latine se reconstruit et se transforme. Une "vague rose" a propulsé des hommes politiques comme Vázquez sur le devant de la scène, posant un défi à l'Amérique du Nord et à l'Europe. L'ensemble de la région traverse des réformes et bénéficie d'un prix élevé des matières premières. Il y a longtemps que les économies d'Amérique latine ne se sont pas aussi bien portées.

Mais la reconstruction ne se fait pas du jour au lendemain. Les "limites" dont parlait Vázquez sont nombreuses. L'Amérique latine est encore loin de pouvoir faire concurrence avec la Chine ou l'Inde. Et l'écart entre riches et pauvres reste démesuré. Les 10% les plus riches de la population reçoivent près de la moitié des revenus, tandis que les 10% les plus pauvres en reçoivent à peine 1,6%. En comparaison, les dix pays les plus riches gagnent 29,1% du revenu mondial, alors que les dix plus pauvres en reçoivent 2,5%.

A travers l'Amérique latine et les Caraïbes, un quart de la population survit avec moins de deux dollars par jour. Cinquante millions de personnes - la population du Royaume-Uni - se débrouille avec moins d'un dollar. Enfin, 14% des habitants de la région n'ont pas accès aux soins de santé. La population qui considère majoritairement les institutions comme corrompues et inefficaces, ne leur accorde guère confiance, tandis que les investissements dans les infrastructures sont en forte baisse.

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