Aprendamos globalización del fútbol

El fútbol no es sólo el deporte más popular del mundo; posiblemente también sea la más globalizada de las profesiones. Es inconcebible que médicos, especialistas en informática, obreros industriales o cajeros de bancos de Brasil, Camerún o Japón pudieran mudarse de país en país con la facilidad con que lo hacen los futbolistas brasileños, cameruneses o japoneses.

De hecho, el club de fútbol Arsenal, de Londres, está compuesto íntegramente por extranjeros, incluido su entrenador francés. HaHasta el rol de capitán del equipo ya no se reserva más para jugadores locales: Thierry Henry, francés, es el capitán de Arsenal; Andriy Shevchenko, ucraniano, es a menudo el capitán del AC Milan, y Cristiano Zanetti, argentino, es el capitán del Inter de Milán. Similarmente, decenas de sudamericanos y africanos juegan en las ligas rusa, turca, polaca y en diversas ligas del sudeste europeo.

Así es como el fútbol nos ofrece un vistazo de cómo funcionaría la verdadera globalización de la mano de obra. En el fútbol, como en otras ocupaciones, las restricciones a la movilidad de la mano de obra provienen en su totalidad del lado de la demanda. Salvo en los países comunistas, nunca se impuso límite alguno a los desplazamientos de los jugadores. Pero el lado de la demanda estaba fuertemente regulado, por una norma que imponía que los clubes no podían tener más de dos jugadores extranjeros en el campo por partido.

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