Apprendre la mondialisation par le foot

Le football n'est pas seulement le sport le plus populaire de la planète, c'est aussi sans doute la profession la plus mondialisée. Or, il est concevable que des médecins, des informaticiens, des cols bleus ou des guichetiers de banque brésiliens, camerounais ou japonais puissent passer aussi facilement d'un pays à un autre que le font les joueurs de foot brésiliens, camerounais ou japonais.

En effet, le club de Londres, Arsenal, est intégralement composé d'étrangers, notamment d'un arbitre français. Même les rôles de capitaines ne sont plus réservés aux joueurs nationaux : Thierry Henry, un Français, est capitaine d'Arsenal, Andriy Shevchenko, ukrainien, est souvent le capitaine de l'AC Milan, et Christiano Zanetti, un Argentin, est le capitaine de l'Inter Milan. De la même manière, des dizaines d'Américains du sud et d'Africains jouent dans des ligues russes, turques, polonaise et de divers pays du sud-est de l'Europe.

Le football donne ainsi un aperçu de la manière dont la vraie mondialisation du travail pourrait fonctionner. Dans le foot, comme dans d'autres métiers, les restrictions imposées à la mobilité du travail venaient intégralement du côté de la demande. Aucune limite n'était imposée aux mouvements des joueurs, excepté dans les pays communistes. Mais la demande était très réglementée, car les clubs ne pouvaient pas faire jouer plus de deux joueurs étrangers à chaque match.

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