Globalizace - poučení z fotbalu

Fotbal je nejen nejpopulárnějším sportem na světě, ale zároveň i nejglobalizovanějším povoláním. Je nemyslitelné, že by se brazilští, kamerunští či japonští lékaři, počítačoví experti, dělníci nebo bankovní úředníci mohli přesouvat z jedné země do druhé tak snadno jako brazilští, kamerunští či japonští fotbalisté.

Fotbalový tým londýnského Arsenalu se například skládá výhradně z cizinců, a to včetně francouzského trenéra. Dokonce ani kapitánská páska již není vyhrazena domácím hráčům: kapitánem Arsenalu je Francouz Thierry Henry, jako kapitán AC Milán často nastupuje Ukrajinec Andrej Ševčenko a Argentinec Christian Zanetti se zhostil kapitánské role v milánském Interu. Desítky Jihoameričanů a Afričanů hrají také v lize ruské, turecké či polské, stejně jako v různých jihoevropských soutěžích.

Díky fotbalu si tak můžeme udělat obrázek, jak by vypadala skutečná globalizace na trhu práce. Ve fotbale stejně jako u jiných povolání existovala omezení mobility pracovních sil výlučně na poptávkové straně. S výjimkou komunistických zemí neuvaloval nikdo na pohyb hráčů žádné limity. Poptávková strana byla naopak silně regulována v podobě pravidla, že kluby nesmějí v jednom zápase postavit více než dva zahraniční hráče.

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