从足球中领略全球化

足球不仅是全世界最为风行的体育运动,而且可能也是最为全球化的职业。巴西、喀麦隆或者日本的医生、计算机科学家、蓝领工人或者银行出纳可以像它们的足球运动员一样在不同国家之间自由流动是不可想象的。

的确,伦敦的阿森纳足球俱乐部完全由外国球员组成,还包括一名法国教练。甚至连队长的角色也不再由本国球员占据。法国球员亨利是阿森纳的队长;乌克兰人舍普琴科经常是AC米兰的队长;阿根廷人扎内地则是国际米兰的队长。同样,几十个南美以及非洲球员在俄国、土耳其、波兰以及不同的东南欧联赛中效力。

足球因此而揭示出真正的劳务全球化如何运作。像其他职业一样,对足球领域中的劳务流动限制完全来自于需求方。除了共产国家外,球员的流动没有任何限制。但是,由于规则规定俱乐部不得在单场比赛中有两名以上的外籍球员上场,因此需求方受到重重管制。

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