Malaria in Africa Tom Stoddart Archive/Getty Images

Poučení z malárie

BERLÍN – Je to jeden z nejúžasnějších příběhů v análech rozvoje, přestože se o něm příliš nemluví: v boji proti malárii – nemoci, která byla kdysi endemická po celém světě a v poslední době zůstává metlou v rozvojových zemích – se podařilo dosáhnout obrovského pokroku. V posledních 15 letech bylo zachráněno více než<>šest milionů životů. A co je ještě lepší, poučení z tohoto úspěchu lze – a proto by se mělo – aplikovat i na další velká rozvojová témata.

Malárii způsobuje parazit přenášený komáry. I při mírném průběhu může vyústit v horečku, zimnici, příznaky podobné chřipce a chudokrevnost – obzvláště nebezpečná je pro těhotné ženy a malé děti. Může vést k celoživotnímu intelektuálnímu postižení a její náklady v podobě ztracené produktivity lze odhadnout na miliardy dolarů ročně.

Kdysi malárie prostupovala celou Evropou, od teplé Itálie až po chladný Archangelsk, a také velkou částí Spojených států. Vývoj insekticidu DDT a levných léků pomohl bohatým zemím k tomu, aby tuto nemoc po druhé světové válce prakticky vymýtily, takže se dnes její výskyt v podstatě omezuje na země chudé.

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