Lecciones de México

El 2 de julio pasado México celebró unas elecciones presidenciales que generaron lo que se ha convertido en una amarga lucha política. Después de que el candidato conservador Felipe Calderón fuera declarado vencedor con menos de un 1% de diferencia de los votos, su rival populista, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, rápidamente denunció la existencia de un fraude. Durante los últimos dos meses, miles de los más fervientes partidarios de López Obrador transformaron el Zócalo, la plaza central de la Ciudad de México, en un mar de tiendas de campaña y en el centro de gravedad de la oposición al resultado oficial.

El 1 de septiembre, decenas de legisladores ofrecieron un espectáculo de primera en el parlamento mexicano al ocupar el podio del orador, impidiendo con ello que el saliente Presidente Vicente Fox diera en persona su discurso final a la nación. Cuatro días más tarde, el más alto tribunal electoral de México determinó que Fox había interferido de manera impropia en las elecciones, pero confirmó unánimemente la victoria de Calderón. López Obrador ha manifestado que obstruirá la presidencia de Calderón desde el momento mismo que la asuma, el 1 de diciembre.

Se aprende mucho sobre la estabilidad subyacente de un país por el modo como responde a una crisis. En Estados Unidos en 2000 y en Ucrania en 2004 ocurrieron conflictos electorales similares. Tras la celebración de elecciones muy reñidas, grandes cantidades de votantes de cada uno de estos países cuestionaron la legitimidad del resultado y pidieron a los tribunales supremos de la nación que se pronunciaran ante las exigencias de que se realizara un recuento de los votos.

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