Aprendiendo dinamismo económico

¿Por qué algunas de las economías más avanzadas del mundo (Francia, Alemania, Italia y Japón) están con su crecimiento estancado y con un alto desempleo? Lo que más fundamental, ¿por qué aparentemente estos países no ejercieron el tipo de liderazgo económico e innovación que sus historias nos podrían haber hecho esperar, especialmente en los sectores innovadores de la alta tecnología que están definiendo nuestro futuro?

El débil desempeño económico de estos países es aún más desconcertante si se considera la aguda caída de sus tasas de nacimiento desde hace varias décadas. Sus pirámides de población están ahora inclinadas hacia las personas de edad mediana que están en sus años más productivos y se encuentran relativamente libres de la carga que significa criar niños. Por lo tanto, sus estándares de vida per cápita deberían ser sustancialmente superiores a los de EE.UU., donde es necesario prestar atencíón a multitud de chicos y hacer nuevas inversiones solamente para mantener el crecimiento de los bienes de capital al ritmo de una población que no para de aumentar.

Por supuesto, lo que es una ventaja hoy puede ser problemático mañana: Europa y Japón enfrentarán graves problemas cuando sus pirámides poblaciones se inclinen hacia los adultos mayores, eliminando la ventaja demográfica temporal que tienen con respecto a EEUU en la actualidad. Pero esto no es lo que afecta sus economías hoy .

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