Как научиться динамизму в экономике

Почему некоторые из наиболее экономически развитых стран мира - Франция, Германия, Италия и Япония - страдают от застоя в экономическом развитии и высокого уровня безработицы? Если поставить вопрос более фундаментально, почему эти страны, как кажется, не в состоянии задавать тон в экономике и инновациях, чего можно ожидать от них, исходя из их исторического опыта, особенно в высокотехнологичных наукоёмких отраслях, в наибольшей степени определяющих наше будущее?

Их слабые экономические показатели ещё больше озадачивают, если принять во внимание резкое падение рождаемости в этих странах, произошедшее несколько десятилетий назад. Большинство их населения составляют на данный момент люди средних лет, находящиеся в наиболее продуктивном возрасте и относительно свободные от забот по воспитанию детей. Поэтому средний уровень жизни на душу населения в этих странах должен быть существенно выше, чем в США, где есть огромное количество детей, нуждающихся во внимании со стороны взрослых, и где требуются новые инвестиции просто для того, чтобы рост объёмов капитала не отстал по скорости от роста населения.

Конечно, то, что сегодня является преимуществом, завтра может стать проблемой: Европа и Япония столкнутся с серьёзными затруднениями, когда их демографические пирамиды приобретут уклон в сторону пожилого возраста и временное демографическое преимущество перед США будет утрачено. Но причина их сегодняшних экономических трудностей не в этом.

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