领导者和管理者

坎布里奇——几十年来第一次,下一任美国总统将由一位美国参议员来担任,因为余下的三位候选人——希拉里·克林顿、巴拉克·奥巴马和约翰·麦凯恩——无一例外都是参议院的议员出身。尽管议员拥有诸多的领导技巧,但他们的管理能力通常都没有经受过考验。参议员通常管理约100名员工,还有几百名竞选工作者。但他们能否管理好拥有几百万工作人员的行政部门呢?

现代管理理论倾向于区别对待领导和管理,并把更多的关注赋予了领导人。管理者被描绘为只会遵守流程、寻求稳定的力量,而只有领导者才能够承担风险,创造变革。组织既需要领导者也需要管理者,但领导者所起的作用更为重要。就像一位专家所说的那样,一个只有好的管理者但却没有好的领导者指引的联盟肯定难以取得最后的胜利。好的领导者能够建立起融合上述所有职能的团队,确保所雇佣的下级员工能够弥补领导者自身在管理方面的缺陷。

更近一些的理论对领导者的管理职能又重新提起了兴趣。归根结底,没有执行力保证的远见卓识无异于纸上谈兵。领导者需要拥有足够的管理技巧,才能确保建立起相应的体系,提供正确决策以及有效执行所必须的信息。一位有效率的领导者通过建立并维护设计合理的一整套体系,来管理和影响周围的决策环境。

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