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Los flujos internacionales y el crecimiento

BERKELEY – Los flujos internacionales representan una parte cada vez mayor de la actividad económica mundial. Pero ¿cuán interconectada está la economía global? ¿De qué manera esos flujos están cambiando, en diferentes actividades, sectores y países? ¿Cuáles son las economías nacionales con mayor o menor volumen de flujos, con mayor o menor interconexión? ¿Y qué consecuencias trae esto para las empresas y para los gobiernos?

Para responder estas preguntas, el McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) elaboró un nuevo informe donde se analizan los ingresos y egresos de bienes, servicios, financiación, personas e información (datos y comunicaciones) en 195 países a lo largo de los últimos 20 años.

Tanto los datos agregados como los ejemplos de nivel micro confirman que el mundo está más interconectado que antes, y que crecieron tanto la extensión como la complejidad de los flujos internacionales, que ahora incluyen más países y más participantes. A pesar de una importante contracción registrada entre 2007 y 2009 como resultado de la profunda recesión global, en 2012 el valor combinado de los flujos financieros y del comercio en bienes y servicios fue el 36% del PIB global, 1,5 veces más que en 1980.

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