Andrew Albertson/Flickr

Globale Vernetzung und globales Wachstum

BERKELEY – Ein wachsender Teil der weltweiten wirtschaftlichen Aktivitäten entfällt auf den grenzüberschreitenden Austausch von Waren, Finanzen, Menschen und Daten. Doch wie hoch ist das Ausmaß der Vernetzung in der Weltwirtschaft? Wie verändert sich der grenzüberschreitende Austausch hinsichtlich wirtschaftlicher Aktivitäten, Sektoren und Länder? Wo rangieren nationale Ökonomien auf der Rangliste des grenzüberschreitenden Austauschs oder der Vernetzung? Und welche Auswirkungen ergeben sich für die Wirtschaft und die politische Entscheidungsfindung?

Ein neuer Bericht des McKinsey Global Institute widmet sich diesen Fragen. Untersucht wurden dabei die Zu- und Abflüsse in den Bereichen Waren, Dienstleistungen, Finanzen, Menschen, Daten und Kommunikation in den letzten 20 Jahren in 195 Ländern.

Sowohl die aggregierten Daten als auch einzelne Beispiele bestätigen eine immer stärkere Vernetzung der Welt, wobei Ausmaß und Komplexität des grenzüberschreitenden Austausches zugenommen haben – und eine immer höhere Anzahl von Ländern und teilnehmenden Akteuren umfassen. Trotz einer deutlichen Kontraktion in den Jahren von 2007 bis 2009 aufgrund der tiefen weltweiten Rezession, belief sich der Gesamtwert der Finanzströme sowie der Handel mit Waren und Dienstleistungen im Jahr 2012 auf 36 Prozent des weltweiten BIP – und war damit 1,5 Mal höher als im Jahr 1980.

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