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Échanges mondiaux de croissance mondiale

BERKELEY – Une part grandissante de l'activité économique mondiale est occupée par les échanges transfrontaliers. Mais quelle est la part du commerce international dans l'économie mondiale ? Comment les échanges entre pays évoluent-ils selon les secteurs d'activité et les régions ? Quel est le poids du commerce extérieur dans les économies nationales et jusqu'à quel point sont-elles maillées avec d'autres régions? Et quelles en sont les conséquences pour les entreprises et des responsables politiques ?

Une nouvelle étude de l’institut mondial McKinsey couvrant 195 pays aborde cette question par une analyse, pour les derniers 20 ans, des flux entrants et sortants de marchandises, de services, de capitaux, de personnes, de données et de communications.

Tant les données globales que les cas particuliers confirment que les liens de l’économie mondiale se resserrent, car les échanges extérieurs ont accru leur emprise et sont devenus plus complexes. L’économie mondiale englobe désormais un plus grand nombre de pays qui y participent. Malgré un ressac important qui a fait plonger, entre 2007 et 2009, l’économie mondiale dans une profonde récession, la valeur totale des flux financiers et des échanges commerciaux de biens et services comptaient pour 36 % du PNB mondial en 2012, une part 1,5 fois plus élevée qu’en 1980.

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