Andrew Albertson/Flickr

تدفقات عالمية ونمو عالمي

بيركلي ــ لقد أصبحت التدفقات عبر الحدود تشكل حصة متزايدة من النشاط الاقتصادي العالمي. ولكن ما مدى ترابط الاقتصاد العالمي؟ وكيف تتغير التدفقات عبر الحدود بين الأنشطة القطاعات والبلدان؟ وكيف يتم ترتيب الاقتصادات الوطنية من حيث التدفقات عبر حدودها أو مدى "ترابطها"؟ وما هي العواقب المترتبة على ذلك بالنسبة للشركات وصناع السياسات؟

يتناول تقرير جديد صادر عن معهد ماكينزي العالمي هذه التساؤلات من خلال تحليل التدفقات الداخلة والخارجة من السلع والخدمات والتمويل والبشر والبيانات والاتصالات لـ195 دولة على مدى السنوات العشرين الماضية.

وتؤكد كل من البيانات المجمعة والأمثلة الدقيقة أن ترابط العالم أصبح أكثر إحكاما، مع زيادة التدفقات عبر الحدود في نطاقها ومدى تعقيدها ــ وأصبح يحتضن عدداً أكبر من البلدان والمشاركين. وبرغم الانكماش الكبير من 2007 إلى 2009، الناجم عن الركود العالمي العميق، فإن القيمة المجمعة للتدفقات المالية والتجارة في السلع والخدمات كانت 36% من الناتج المحلي الإجمالي في عام 2012 ــ أعلى بمرة ونصف المرة مما كانت عليه في عام 1980.

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