Die zwei Arten von Linken in Lateinamerika

In den letzten Jahren hatte man zunehmend den Eindruck – der sich in den letzten Monaten noch verstärkte – dass das Pendel in Lateinamerika nach links ausschlägt. Die wenig beeindruckenden und manchmal auch desolaten Ergebnisse der Wirtschaftsreformen scheinen eine Gegenbewegung ausgelöst zu haben, während derer am ganzen Kontinent links gerichtete Präsidenten an die Macht kamen. Das begann mit dem Wahlsieg von Hugo Chávez in Venezuela Ende der 1990er Jahre und nahm seine Fortsetzung mit den Siegen von Ricardo Lagos in Chile, Nestor Kirchner in Argentinien sowie Lula Ignacio da Silva in Brasilien und Tabaré Vázquez in Uruguay. Weitere Siege der Linken scheinen in Mexiko, Peru und Bolivien bevorzustehen.

Während allerdings die Voraussetzungen für diesen Trend klar sind, wählen die Menschen in Lateinamerika eigentlich nicht die Linke, sondern zwei Arten davon.

Obwohl das Jahr 2004 gemessen am Wirtschaftswachstum sicherlich zu den besseren Jahren zählt, bleiben die Ergebnisse aus zwei Jahrzehnten so genannter Strukturreformen dürftig. Die Ungleichheit hat zugenommen, die Armut wurde bestenfalls leicht reduziert, die Beschäftigungsrate bleibt hartnäckig niedrig, Korruption, Gewalt, Verbrechen und politischer Stillstand dauern unvermindert an. Der Beweis für den Nutzen von Auslandsinvestitionen und Freihandelsabkommen mit den USA muss erst erbracht werden. Unter diesen Umständen ist eine starke ideologische und politische Reaktion gegen den rein marktwirtschaftlich orientierten „Washington-Konsens“ mit seiner Betonung auf Liberalisierung, Deregulierung und Privatisierung alles andere als eine Überraschung.

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