拉丁美洲的两个左派

过去几年来,有种看法越来越被人们所接受,最近几个月以来尤其如此,那就是拉丁美洲正在向左翼回归。经济改革平淡无奇、甚至有时凄凉惨淡的结果似乎催生了强大的后座力,带来了南美大陆左翼总统的频频当选:起初是20世纪90年代末乌戈·查韦斯在委内瑞拉选举中获胜,而后是里卡多·拉戈斯在智利、内斯托尔·卡洛斯·基什内尔在阿根廷当选,最近还有巴西的卢拉·达·席尔瓦和乌拉圭的塔瓦雷·巴斯克斯。看起来左翼人士在墨西哥、秘鲁和玻利维亚似乎还会有更多的胜利。

尽管这种大趋势作为前提已经再清楚不过,但拉丁美洲的投票者选出的却不是一个左派,而是两个。

可以肯定的是,尽管拉美地区2004年的经济发展十分可喜,但近20年来所谓的结构改革却让人大失所望。不平等现象进一步加剧、贫穷最多也只是稍有缓解、就业率仍然很低、腐败、暴力、犯罪和政治僵局愈演愈烈,国外投资和与美国自由贸易协议的结果还有待观察。在这种情况下,人们在意识形态和政策导向上强烈反对面向市场、强调贸易自由、放松管制和私有化的“华盛顿共识”,这根本就不值得大惊小怪。

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