La búsqueda inconclusa de América Latina

SANTIAGO – Los participantes llegaron, los anfitriones dieron la bienvenida a los invitados europeos, se pronunciaron muchos discursos, se brindó y, al final, la reunión anual de la Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños (CELAC) fue aclamada como un éxito. Pero lo que quedó la mañana siguiente fue la clara sensación de una región profundamente dividida, que carece de un propósito común y sobre todo de liderazgo.

En primer lugar, lo bueno: los cuatro países principales de la ribera del Pacífico –México, Colombia, Perú y Chile– dieron pasos importantes para profundizar su acuerdo de integración comercial. A fines de este año, el 90 por ciento de todo el comercio dentro de ese bloque estará libre de aranceles. Costa Rica pidió el ingreso y el Japón fue aceptado como observador. Esta Alianza del Pacífico, que representa casi el 40 por ciento del PIB latinoamericano y 500 mil millones de dólares en exportaciones anuales, bien puede convertirse en un motor para el crecimiento económico de la región.

El Presidente de Venezuela, Hugo Chávez, no pudo asistir por razones de salud, pero de los jefes de Estado que siguen su ejemplo no faltó ninguno. El grupo bloqueó una petición europea de incluir en la declaración final garantías de estabilidad legal para el régimen de inversiones. El Presidente de Bolivia, Evo Morales, aprovechó del foro para criticar a Chile y reiterar las aspiraciones territoriales de su país. Cuando al cierre el Presidente de Cuba, Raúl Castro, asumió la presidencia rotativa de la CELAC, institución dedicada –es de suponer– a propagar la democracia, ni siquiera los diplomáticos más veteranos pudieron reprimir una sonrisa irónica.

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