Рассерженные демократии

МЕХИКО – В 2011 и 2012 годах десятки тысяч студентов в Сантьяго в Чили вышли на демонстрации, требуя большего доступа к высшему образованию. Ранее в этом году сотни тысяч бразильцев прошли по Сан-Пауло, Рио-де-Жанейро и Бело-Оризонти, требуя улучшения качества услуг общественного здравоохранения, улучшения школ и более дешевого и эффективного общественного транспорта. И колумбийцы, и перуанцы из всех слоев общества (особенно крестьяне, владельцы ферм и шахтеры), а также мексиканские школьные учителя в настоящий момент занимают центры Боготы, Лимы и Мехико, нарушая повседневную жизнь жителей и создавая серьезные проблемы для властей.

Эти страны, бывшие когда-то моделями экономических надежд и демократических обещаний Латинской Америки, стали примерами демократий без легитимности или доверия. Хотя в последние годы они добились значительного социального прогресса, они стали центрами народных волнений. И их президенты, несмотря на свою неоспоримую компетентность, наблюдают за падением собственных рейтингов.

Эти парадоксы одновременно являются как приводящими в недоумение, так и показательными. Экономика Чили за последние два года показывала хорошие результаты, несмотря на низкие мировые цены на медь; однако ее темпы роста далеки от результатов предыдущих 25 лет. Экономический бальзам, наносимый на старые социальные и культурные раны, теряет свою эффективность.

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