Rozmrzelé demokracie

MEXICO CITY – V letech 2011 a 2012 demonstrovaly v chilském Santiagu desetitisíce studentů, kteří požadovali lepší přístup k vyššímu vzdělání. Počátkem letošního roku vyšly do ulic São Paula, Ria de Janeiro a Belo Horizonte statisíce Brazilců volajících po kvalitnějších službách veřejného zdravotnictví, lepších školách a levnější a efektivnější veřejné dopravě. A Kolumbijci a Peruánci všech povolání (zejména rolníci, farmáři a horníci), stejně jako mexičtí učitelé dnes okupují centra Bogoty, Limy a Mexico City, narušují každodenní životy obyvatel a působí vážné problémy úřadům.

Tyto země, kdysi modely hospodářské naděje a demokratického příslibu v Latinské Americe, se staly příkladem demokracií bez legitimity či důvěryhodnosti. Ačkoliv dosáhly v posledních letech značného společenského pokroku, proměnily se v centra všelidového neklidu. A jejich prezidenti navzdory svým nepopiratelným schopnostem pouze sledují, jak se jejich obliba propadá.

Tyto paradoxy mohou mást, ale zároveň leccos odhalují. Tak především jsou odrazem problémů s hospodářským růstem. Chilská ekonomika si navzdory nízkým světovým cenám mědi vede v posledních dvou letech dobře; její roční tempo růstu se však ani zdaleka neblíží růstu z předchozích 25 let. Ekonomický balzám aplikovaný na staré sociální a kulturní rány přestává účinkovat.

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