El factor militar en América Latina

BUENOS AIRES - En 2009 América Latina tuvo un logro desconocido: la crisis económica mundial no la afectó tan dramáticamente como a otras regiones. Pero en el plano político e institucional se profundizaron sus fragilidades   y sus riesgos.

Es cierto que las diversas elecciones legislativas y presidenciales que se realizaron a lo largo y ancho de Latinoamérica reforzaron –más allá de los resultados de cada caso– el compromiso ciudadano con el pluralismo y la democracia. Pero en esos mismos procesos electorales se reflejaron crecientes niveles de polarización política y por persistentes debilidades institucionales. De algún modo, ello revela una paradoja de la democratización latinoamericana: los gobiernos de minoría y excluyentes, que desvalorizan y enflaquecen el Estado, ya no tienen cabida. Pero al mismo tiempo el auge del personalismo, la concentración del poder y las tácticas políticas refractarias producen ingobernabilidad en la gestión y fragmentación en el Estado.

En las relaciones internacionales de la región se manifestaron señales promisorias y desalentadoras: por un lado, Brasil continuó de modo exitoso su senda ascendente como un poder emergente con aspiración de proyección global y, por el otro, las fracturas intra-regionales pusieron de presente el deteriorado poder negociador colectivo de América Latina, a pesar de que Argentina, Brasil y México son parte del G-20. La región, como un todo, continúa mostrando que pierde peso específico en la política mundial, en buena medida, por la falta de un mínimo proyecto compartido.  

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