Lateinamerikas magere Jahre

Aus Lateinamerika gibt es dieser Tage nichts Gutes zu berichten. Die wirtschaftliche Situation verschlechtert sich beinahe überall, der soziale Zusammenhalt ist in Auflösung begriffen und politische Instabilität macht sich breit. Das ist auch kein Wunder, wenn man bedenkt, dass es in Lateinamerika in den letzten zwanzig Jahren keine zielgerichtete Entwicklung gab. Vermögenswerte wurden veräußert und die Staatsschulden explodierten, aber kaum etwas bleibend Nutzbringendes wurde erwirtschaftet. Diese Jahre waren wahrlich magere Jahre.

In den letzten 20 Jahren betrug das durchschnittliche Wachstum des pro-Kopf-BIP 0,35 %. Bei dieser Geschwindigkeit würde eine Volkswirtschaft 200 Jahre brauchen, um ihr Volumen zu verdoppeln. In Asien verdoppelt sich der Lebensstandard alle 10 Jahre. Wie anders, als durch immer geringere Löhne, kann Lateinamerika angesichts dieser dürftigen Wachstumsraten international wettbewerbsfähig bleiben?

Nicht einfach Pech, sondern eine elementare Misswirtschaft ist schuld an der wirtschaftlichen Stagnation. Wenn es in Lateinamerika keine Veränderungen gibt, wird seine Situation der in Afrika immer ähnlicher werden - es wird zu einer Region schwacher Staaten mit großen, informellen Volkswirtschaften und weit verbreiteter Armut werden. Vier Faktoren trugen zu dieser Entwicklung bei.

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