El decenio brillante de América Latina

SANTIAGO – El Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo declaró el pasado mes de julio que éste sería el “decenio de América Latina”. Unos meses después, The Economist hizo suya esa idea, que desde entonces han repetido innumerables apologistas y expertos.

Nada hay como un poco de crecimiento económico para hacer salivar a los expertos y América Latina está creciendo: un seis por ciento el año pasado y un 4,75 por ciento, aproximadamente en 2011, según el Fondo Monetario Internacional. En comparación con los resultados, más bien flojos, a lo largo de los tres últimos decenios, parece casi velocidad de despegue y, en comparación con la reciente y deprimente ejecutoria de Norteamérica y Europa, parece claramente supersónico. Los mercados de valores de América Latina han experimentado una marcada subida desde la crisis, como también los precios de la propiedad inmobiliaria en los pocos países que recopilan datos sobre los valores de la viviendas. No es de extrañar que tantos estén tan entusiasmados.

La impresión sobre América Latina fue igualmente optimista al comienzo del decenio de 1980. Había abundancia de préstamos de bancos de los EE.UU.  y países como la Argentina, Chile y el Uruguay estaban creciendo rápidamente, pero entonces Paul Volcker aumentó los tipos de interés en los EE.UU., los dólares volvieron a casa, la mayoría de los países no pagaron sus deudas y el decenio de 1980 se convirtió en un “decenio perdido” para América Latina.

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