Les hauts et les bas des régimes de change latino-américains

BUENOS AIRES – Depuis la Seconde guerre mondiale, les pays d’Amérique latine ont, d’une certaine manière, fait office de laboratoires des régimes de change. D’innombrables régimes ont été essayés dans tout le continent – certains ont été un succès, d’autres un échec lamentable.

Mais dans tous les cas, les choix politiques relatifs aux taux de change ont joué un rôle prépondérant dans les résultats macroéconomiques de ces pays. Et aujourd’hui, après deux décennies de turbulences, il semble que les pays du continent convergent vers un cadre monétaire plus unifié et plus durable.

Les années 1980 ont été une décennie douloureuse pour la majorité des pays latino-américains. Le deuxième choc pétrolier et des taux d’intérêts élevés sur les marchés internationaux, couplés à l’absence d’investissements étrangers directs, ont créé des déséquilibres internes et externes importants et des niveaux de dettes extérieures considérables. Dans tous les principaux pays, cette situation s’est traduite par des défauts de paiement, des ajustements importants et constants des taux de change et à la fin de la décennie, par une spirale inflationniste ou déflationniste, proche dans certains cas d’une hyperinflation.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.


Log in

  1. An employee works at a chemical fiber weaving company VCG/Getty Images

    China in the Lead?

    For four decades, China has achieved unprecedented economic growth under a centralized, authoritarian political system, far outpacing growth in the Western liberal democracies. So, is Chinese President Xi Jinping right to double down on authoritarianism, and is the “China model” truly a viable rival to Western-style democratic capitalism?

  2. The assembly line at Ford Bill Pugliano/Getty Images

    Whither the Multilateral Trading System?

    The global economy today is dominated by three major players – China, the EU, and the US – with roughly equal trading volumes and limited incentive to fight for the rules-based global trading system. With cooperation unlikely, the world should prepare itself for the erosion of the World Trade Organization.

  3. Donald Trump Saul Loeb/Getty Images

    The Globalization of Our Discontent

    Globalization, which was supposed to benefit developed and developing countries alike, is now reviled almost everywhere, as the political backlash in Europe and the US has shown. The challenge is to minimize the risk that the backlash will intensify, and that starts by understanding – and avoiding – past mistakes.

  4. A general view of the Corn Market in the City of Manchester Christopher Furlong/Getty Images

    A Better British Story

    Despite all of the doom and gloom over the United Kingdom's impending withdrawal from the European Union, key manufacturing indicators are at their highest levels in four years, and the mood for investment may be improving. While parts of the UK are certainly weakening economically, others may finally be overcoming longstanding challenges.

  5. UK supermarket Waring Abbott/Getty Images

    The UK’s Multilateral Trade Future

    With Brexit looming, the UK has no choice but to redesign its future trading relationships. As a major producer of sophisticated components, its long-term trade strategy should focus on gaining deep and unfettered access to integrated cross-border supply chains – and that means adopting a multilateral approach.

  6. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now