أميركا اللاتينية وأفعوانية العملة

بوينس ايريس ـ منذ الحرب العالمية الثانية، كانت بلدان أميركا اللاتينية أشبه بمختبر للعملة. ففي مختلف أنحاء المنطقة جُرِّبَت أشكال لا تعد ولا تحصى من أنظمة صرف العملة ـ فنجح بعضها وفشل بعضها فشلاً ذريعا.

 ورغم ذلك فقد لعبت سياسات صرف العملة دوراً رئيسياً في تحديد مجمل النتائج التي حققتها هذه البلدان في مجال الاقتصاد الكلي. واليوم، وبعد عقدين من الاضطرابات، تبدو هذه البلدان وكأنها باتت أقرب إلى تبني إطار عمل أكثر وحدة واستدامة.

كان عقد الثمانينيات مروعاً بالنسبة لأغلب بلدان أميركا اللاتينية. فكانت صدمة النفط الثانية، وارتفاع أسعار الفائدة الدولية، فضلاً عن الافتقار إلى الاستثمار الأجنبي، سبباً في نشوء اختلال في التوازن الداخلي والخارجي، فضلاً عن مستويات عالية من الديون الخارجية. وفي كل البلدان الرئيسية، أسفر هذا عن العجز، فضلاً عن ضرورة إجراء تعديلات كبيرة بشكل دائم لأسعار الصرف، وبحلول نهاية العقد دخلت هذا البلدان في دوامة عنيفة من التضخم وخفض قيمة العملة، وباتت في بعض الأحوال على مشارف مستويات بالغة الارتفاع من التضخم.

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