Le défi de la corruption en Amérique latine

Il est souvent difficile de faire la part des choses entre les causes et les conséquences de la corruption qui sévit dans plusieurs pays des Caraïbes et d’Amérique latine. La corruption freine la croissance, mais une faible croissance encourage aussi la corruption et limite l’efficacité des gouvernements. Dans tous les cas, la corruption n’est pas en elle-même le problème principal. Elle symbolise et souligne plutôt les faiblesses de fonctionnement de l’État et de ses interactions avec les citoyens et les milieux d’affaires.

Certaines institutions sont si importantes qu’elles produisent un État é8equitable et compétent quand elles fonctionnent correctement ou un État injuste et inefficace lorsqu’elles sont dysfonctionnelles. La mise en ordre de deux institutions majeures – le secteur public et l’appareil judiciaire – devrait être une priorité de plusieurs gouvernements de la région.

Des études menées au Salvador, au Nicaragua, en Bolivie et au Paraguay au cours de la dernière décennie ont montré que les personnes exposées à la corruption font moins confiance au système politique et à leurs concitoyens. Les Nicaraguayens ont ainsi dû répondre à la question de savoir si les pots-de-vin « permettaient d’obtenir des résultats au sein de la bureaucratie ». Ceux qui ont répondu « oui » montraient également moins de respect pour la légitimité du système politique.

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