Amérique Latine : l’aubaine des matières premières

BUENOS AIRES – L’Amérique Latine vit un boom exceptionnel résultant de la forte croissance des revenus provenant de l’exportation des ressources naturelles. Mais la région exploite-t-elle au mieux cette opportunité ? Ces fonds ont-ils été utilisés aussi efficacement que possible ? 

A l’exception de l’Amérique Centrale, la hausse des prix des matières premières a amélioré les comptes des opérations externes et la situation budgétaire des pays de l’Amérique Latine. Les revenus de l’exportation des ressources naturelles ont représenté 25% des revenus totaux dans le secteur public en 2008. Au Venezuela, en Bolivie, en Equateur, et au Mexique, ils ont dépassé 40%. Cela représente environ 7% du PIB dans ces pays (plus de 11% au Venezuela et en Bolivie, et 8% en Equateur et au Mexique).

Pour décider de la manière d’exploiter cette aubaine, il est important de déterminer si l’augmentation des prix des matières premières sera pérenne ou plutôt passagère. Si elle est passagère, la meilleure façon d’agir serait d’épargner ce revenu supplémentaire ou bien de l’utiliser, deuxième meilleure option, pour réduire la dette nationale. Si l’augmentation est considérée comme permanente, cependant, il serait logique d’augmenter les dépenses ou de réduire la pression fiscale.

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