latin american unrest Gregory Smith/Getty Images

Narrativas políticas erróneas

LIMA – A través de América Latina, los ciudadanos, que hasta hace poco tiempo sentían entusiasmo por sus gobiernos de izquierda, parecen estar cambiando de opinión. En Brasil y Venezuela, quieren sacar a sus líderes. En Argentina, ya lo hicieron. En Bolivia, rechazaron la propuesta del presidente Evo Morales de enmendar la constitución a fin de que él pudiera postularse a otro periodo presidencial. Y, en Perú, ninguno de los candidatos de izquierda llegó a la segunda vuelta de la elección presidencial, que se efectuará el 5 de junio. ¿A qué se debe el cambio de preferencias?

Aprender a partir de la experiencia es algo mucho más complejo de lo que parece. Es imposible revivir el pasado; sólo se puede contar historias acerca de él – y las historias que contamos tienden a no ser un reflejo fiel de la realidad de los hechos–. No hay lugar donde esto sea más válido que en América Latina.

La narrativa propugnada por los recientes líderes izquierdistas de la región –especialmente por Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva de Brasil, Hugo Chávez de Venezuela y Cristina Kirchner de Argentina– se basaba en una lucha de clases renovada entre "el pueblo" y lo que se podría llamar "los antipueblo". Según afirmaban, las políticas que los antecedieron eran prorricos debido a que los gobiernos que las propulsaban estaban sometidos a los ricos. Sus movimientos populares supuestamente se rebelaron contra una estructura política ­– caracterizada por elites locales en estrecha colaboración con el imperialismo (es decir, Estados Unidos, por lo general)– que protegía los intereses de los antipueblo.

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