推行正确的产业政策

发自达沃斯——在全球经济增长乏力之时,发展中国家正在逐渐重拾一些旧策略——尤其那种利用产业政策推动特定产业发展,使之成为经济增长和就业动力的做法。但纵观这类政策的历史,特别是在拉美和加勒比海地区,都充满了失败和警示的教训。

回望二十世纪五六十年代,许多拉美和加勒比国家都极为热衷于产业政策。通过以国内生产替代进口,依靠政府计划来聚焦优先领域,实施选择性贸易保护(例如,征收关税、配额、进口许可),它们试图加快从原材料供应商到制造业经济的转型进程。

当韩国这样的东亚国家通过这类政策来让特定行业进行全球范围竞争时,拉丁美洲和加勒比国家却几乎没有走对过路子。尽管拥有如巴西航空工业公司(飞机制造商)和智利鲑鱼养殖这样的优秀榜样,但各国政府却基本上选择了失败者——而推动这个选择过程的可不仅仅是政治压力和企业竞争潜力。

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