De estado benefactor a estado innovador

PRINCETON – Un espectro está acechando a la economía mundial -el espectro de la tecnología que mata el empleo-. La manera en que se enfrente este desafío determinará el destino de las economías de mercado y las políticas democráticas del mundo, de la misma manera que la respuesta de Europa al ascenso del movimiento socialista a fines del siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX dio forma al curso de la historia subsiguiente.

Cuando la nueva clase trabajadora industrial comenzó a organizarse, los gobiernos apaciguaron la amenaza de la revolución desde abajo que Karl Marx había vaticinado expandiendo los derechos políticos y sociales, regulando los mercados, erigiendo un estado benefactor que proveyera amplias concesiones y seguro social y aliviando los altibajos de la macroeconomía. En efecto, reinventaron el capitalismo para hacerlo más inclusivo y darles a los trabajadores una participación en el sistema.

Las revoluciones tecnológicas de hoy exigen una reinvención igualmente integral. Los potenciales beneficios de los descubrimientos y las nuevas aplicaciones en la robótica, la biotecnología, las tecnologías digitales y otras áreas nos rodean y son fáciles de ver. Por cierto, muchos creen que la economía mundial puede estar en el umbral de otra explosión de nuevas tecnologías.

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