Dallo stato sociale allo stato dell’innovazione

PRINCETON – Uno spettro sta tormentando l’economia mondiale, ovvero lo spettro della riduzione dei posti di lavoro a causa della tecnologia. Il modo in cui si affronterà questa sfida determinerà il destino delle economie di mercato e delle politiche democratiche di tutto il mondo, proprio come la risposta europea all’ascesa del movimento sociale alla fine del diciannovesimo e all’inizio del ventesimo secolo ha delineato il corso della storia.

In quel contesto infatti, a seguito dell’organizzazione da parte della nuova classe industriale, i governi riuscirono a neutralizzare la minaccia della rivoluzione dal basso, prevista da Karl Marx, estendendo i diritti politici e sociali, regolando i mercati, ed istituendo uno stato sociale in grado di fornire un’assistenza sociale e di bilanciare gli alti e bassi della macroeconomia. Di fatto, i governi, in quel contesto, sono riusciti a reinventare il capitalismo per renderlo più inclusivo e a garantire ai lavoratori una partecipazione nel sistema.

La rivoluzione tecnologica di oggi richiede un processo simile di reinvenzione. I vantaggi potenziali delle scoperte e delle nuove applicazioni nel campo della robotica, nella biotecnologia, nelle tecnologie digitali e in altre aree sono tutte intorno a noi e facili da individuare. Molti credono infatti che l’economia mondiale sia al culmine di un nuovo boom di nuove tecnologie.

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