Jon Krause

Das Verlorene Paradies der Arbeit

LONDON – Die Menschen in den Industrieländern fragen sich, wie ihre Länder nach der „großen Rezession“ zur Vollbeschäftigung zurückkehren sollen, und vielleicht täten wir gut daran, uns mit einem visionären Essay zu beschäftigen, den John Maynard Keynes im Jahr 1930 verfasst hat und der den Titel trägt: „Wirtschaftliche Möglichkeiten für unsere Enkelkinder“.

1936 hatte Keynes seine Allgemeine Theorie der Beschäftigung, des Zinses und des Geldes veröffentlicht und den Regierungen intellektuelles Rüstzeug zur Bekämpfung von Arbeitslosigkeit an die Hand gegeben, die durch Konjunkturrückgänge verursacht wird. Im oben erwähnten, früheren Essay hatte Keynes zwischen Arbeitslosigkeit unterschieden, die durch temporäre wirtschaftliche Einbrüche entsteht, und dem, was er „technologische Arbeitslosigkeit“ nannte – gemeint ist „eine Arbeitslosigkeit, die entsteht, weil unsere Entdeckung von Mitteln zur Einsparung von Arbeit schneller voranschreitet als unsere Fähigkeit, neue Verwendungen für Arbeit zu finden“.

Keynes ging davon aus, dass wir von dieser Art der Arbeitslosigkeit in Zukunft noch viel hören würden. Er glaubte aber dennoch, dass ihre Entstehung Grund zur Hoffnung und nicht etwa zur Verzweiflung bot. Denn ihr Aufkommen zeigte, dass zumindest die fortschrittlichen Länder dabei waren das „wirtschaftliche Problem“ zu lösen – das Problem der Knappheit, das die Menschheit zwang, ein mühevolles, von Arbeit geprägtes Leben zu führen.

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