Construction workers on site

Réformer le paysage du travail

DAVOS – Alors que l'économie mondiale change à un rythme toujours plus rapide, le marché du travail dans de nombreux pays a non seulement du mal à suivre, mais semble aussi échouer à remplir  certaines fonctions importantes. Le chômage élevé coexiste avec des emplois vacants. La hausse de la productivité ne se traduit pas par des salaires plus élevés. Et, pour beaucoup, la mobilité ascendante reste hors de portée, quand bien même l'économie a commencé à se redresser.

Heureusement, les choses semblent commencer à changer. Quatre tendances mondiales sont en train de remodeler le monde du travail, aidant à résoudre les contradictions et à surmonter les dysfonctionnements du marché du travail grâce à l’adaptation progressive des entreprises, travailleurs et gouvernements au nouvel environnement démographique, technologique et économique.

La première tendance est démographique. Dans une grande partie du monde, le vieillissement des sociétés et la baisse des taux de natalité signifient que l’époque où la main-d'œuvre était abondante touche à sa fin. Environ 60% de la population mondiale vit dans des pays où la main-d'œuvre est en stagnation ou en diminution. La population en âge de travailler de la Chine a atteint un pic en 2010; en 2050, plus d'un quart de sa population aura plus de 65 ans (aujourd'hui, il s’agit de seulement 8%). En Allemagne, la population active devrait diminuer de six millions au cours des 15 prochaines années.

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