La manodopera nell’Era dei Robot

DAVOS – I timori per l’impatto della tecnologia sul mercato del lavoro non sono nulla di nuovo. All’inizio del diciannovesimo secolo, un gruppo di operai tessili inglesi noti come “Luddisti” temevano che le nuove tecnologie come i telai meccanici e i filatoi ad anello sarebbero costate loro il posto di lavoro. Protestarono distruggendo i macchinari.

Oggi, l’ansia che le nuove tecnologie possa distruggere milioni di posti di lavoro è forte come non mai. Nel mezzo di una grande crisi occupazionale, la tecnologia continua a ridurre la manodopera necessaria per la produzione in serie, mentre l’automazione di mansioni di routine legali e amministrative sta indebolendo anche questo settore del mercato del lavoro. La scienza della robotica sta rivoluzionando il settore manifatturiero; ogni anno vengono utilizzati 200.000 nuovi robot industriali. Nel 2015 ci si aspetta che il numero totale sfiori gli 1,5 milioni di pezzi. Adattare il mercato del lavoro a un mondo di posti di lavoro sempre più automatizzati sarà una delle sfide della nostra era.

Eppure nessun Paese può permettersi di ignorare la trasformazione. A livello globale, 200 milioni di persone sono disoccupate, laddove nel 2008 erano 27 milioni. È strettamente necessario anticipare i prossimi cambiamenti tecnologici e dare alla forza lavoro globale l’istruzione e le competenze necessarie per partecipare al moderno mercato del lavoro.

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