Le travail à l’ère robotique

DAVOS – Les craintes concernant l’impact des technologies sur le marché du travail ne sont pas récentes. Au début du XIXème siècle, un groupe d’ouvriers britanniques du textile, dit groupe des Luddites, craignait déjà que leurs emplois ne disparaissent au profit des nouvelles technologies comme les métiers à tisser et à filer mécaniques. Ils s’y sont opposés en détruisant les machines.

Aujourd’hui, le désarroi provoqué par le potentiel destructif, pour des millions d’emplois, des nouvelles technologies n’a jamais été aussi profond. Au cœur d’une crise massive de l’emploi, les technologies ne cessent de réduire les postes de travail nécessaires à la production de masse, tandis que l’automatisation des tâches juridiques et comptables de routine creuse plus encore ce secteur du marché du travail. La robotique révolutionne les modes de fabrication ; 200 000 nouveaux robots industriels voient le jour chaque année. En 2015, ils devraient être 1,5 million.  Adapter le marché du travail à un monde dans lequel le travail est de plus en plus automatisé sera l’un des défis essentiels de notre ère.

Et aucun pays ne peut se permettre d’ignorer cette évolution. Près de 200 millions de personnes sont sans emplois dans le monde, soit 27 millions d’individus de plus qu’en 2008. Il faut impérativement anticiper les évolutions technologiques à venir, et éduquer et former la main d’œuvre mondiale pour la doter de moyens qui lui permettent de participer au marché du travail moderne.

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