العمل في عصر الروبوتات

دافوس ــ إن المخاوف بشأن تأثير التكنولوجيا على سوق العمل ليست جديدة. ففي أوائل القرن التاسع عشر، أعرب المنتمون إلى مجموعة من عمال النسيج في إنجلترا، عرفت باسم جماعة اللوديت، عن خشيتهم من أن تكلفهم التكنولوجيات الجديدة مثل الأنوال الآلية وإطارات الغزل وظائفهم. فأعلنوا عن احتجاجهم بتحطيم الآلات.

واليوم، يظل القلق من أن تتسبب التكنولوجيات الجديدة في تدمير ملايين الوظائف عظيماً كأي وقت مضى. ففي خضم أزمة كبرى تحيط بعملية تشغيل العمالة، تستمر التكنولوجيا في الحد من العمالة اللازمة للإنتاج الواسع النطاق، في حين يعمل التشغيل الآلي للوظائف القانونية والمحاسبية الروتينية على تفريغ هذا القطاع من سوق الوظائف أيضا. إن علم الروبوتات يحدث ثورة في التصنيع؛ ففي كل عام يدخل نحو 200 ألف روبوت صناعي إضافي إلى حيز الاستخدام. ومن المتوقع أن يصل العدد في عام 2015 إلى 1.5 مليون روبوت. والواقع أن تكييف سوق العمل مع عالم حيث يهيمن التشغيل الآلي بشكل متزايد على مكان العمل سوف يكون أحد أصعب التحديات في عصرنا.

ورغم هذا فلا يستطيع أي بلد أن يتجاهل هذا التحول. فعلى مستوى العالم، بلغ عدد العاطلين عن العمل نحو 200 مليون شخص، بزيادة 27 مليون شخص عن عام 2008. وهناك احتياج شديد لاستباق التغيرات التكنولوجية المقبلة وتزويد قوة العمل العالمية بالتعليم والمهارات اللازمة للمشاركة في سوق العمل الحديثة.

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