La Strada en Wall Street

VIENA – Los apologistas del neoliberalismo no sólo suponen que los estados deberían ser administrados como empresas, sino también que, en la medida de lo posible, no deberían intervenir en la economía. El mercado, insisten, se regula solo. Pero, hace más de 50 años, el premio Nobel Paul Samuelson contradijo esta idealización de los mercados en términos gráficos: la absoluta libertad para el mercado conducirá a que el perro de Rockefeller se tome la leche que un niño pobre necesita para un desarrollo saludable, no por un fracaso del mercado, sino porque “los bienes van a parar a manos de quienes pagan más por ellos”.

Este dilema distributivo reside en el corazón del sistema capitalista, que consiste en una competencia infinita alimentada por el deseo de maximizar las ganancias. En un mundo así, no hay espacio para una conciencia social.

Es el estado el que, en algunas sociedades más que en otras, debe llenar la brecha. Nada supera a la economía de mercado como sistema para crear riqueza, pero sólo la compensación social asegura que esta riqueza se distribuya de manera justa. Las economías de mercado social de Europa, mucho más que el modelo neoliberal anglosajón, consideran que mitigar las desigualdades creadas por los mercados es la obligación del estado.

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