Ein Markt braucht klare Regeln

Gastkommentar von Alfred Gusenbauer, Bundeskanzler der Republik Österreich

Die Apologeten und Claqueure des Neoliberalismus gehen nicht nur davon aus, dass ein Staat wie ein Unternehmen geführt werden sollte und kann, sondern auch, dass sich dieser aus dem Wirtschaftsgeschehen möglichst heraushalten soll. Der Markt würde sich ohnehin von selbst regeln. Der Wirtschaftsnobelpreisträger Paul Samuelson hat der Idealisierung des Marktes schon vor mehr als 50 Jahren plastisch widersprochen: Unter völlig freien Marktbedingungen würde Rockefellers Hund die Milch bekommen, die ein armes Kind für seine gesunde Entwicklung benötige; dies nicht etwa, weil der Markt versage, sondern weil „die Güter in die Hände derjenigen gelegt werden, die das meiste dafür zahlen.“ Diese Verteilungsproblematik liegt im Wesen des kapitalistischen Systems begründet, dem allseitigen und immerwährenden Konkurrenzkampf. Dessen Treibstoff ist der unbändige Drang nach Gewinnmaximierung. In dieser Welt der Objekte bar jedweder Perspektive für das Subjekt ist kein Platz für soziales Gewissen.

Diese Lücke füllt der Staat aus, in manchen Gesellschaften mehr, in manchen weniger. In der in Europa etablierten sozialen Marktwirtschaft – im Gegensatz zum angelsächsischen Modell des Neoliberalismus – soll die öffentliche Hand die vom Markt herbeigeführten Ungleichheiten abschwächen, damit alle an den gesellschaftlichen und politischen Entwicklungen teilnehmen können. Die Marktwirtschaft schafft als unübertroffen bestes Wirtschaftsystem Wohlstand für die Menschen – aber erst der soziale Ausgleich sorgt dafür, dass dieser Wohlstand nachhaltig wirkt und gerecht verteilt wird.

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