La fin du Wall Sreet Circus

VIENNE – Les partisans du néolibéralisme estiment que non seulement l'Etat doit diriger le pays comme une entreprise, mais qu'il doit intervenir le moins possible dans l'économie. Le marché, pensent-ils, s'autorégule. Pourtant, il y a plus de 50 ans le prix Nobel Paul Samuelson a montré de manière imagée les conséquences de cette idéalisation : avec la liberté absolue du marché, c'est le chien de Rockefeller qui va boire le lait dont aurait besoin un enfant pauvre, et ceci non pas en raison d'un échec du marché, mais parce que "les biens aboutissent entre les mains de ceux qui peuvent les payer au prix fort".

Ce problème de la distribution des richesses est au cœur du système capitaliste qui consiste en une concurrence sans fin alimentée par la course au profit. Dans un tel système, il n'y a pas de place pour la justice sociale. C'est l'Etat, qui dans une plus ou moins grande mesure selon les pays en a la responsabilité.

L'économie de marché est sans égale pour créer de la richesse, mais elle doit être équilibrée par un dispositif  social pour veiller à une juste répartition de cette richesse. L'économie sociale de marché européenne, bien davantage que le modèle néolibéral anglo-saxon, considère la réduction des inégalités engendrées par le marché comme un devoir qui incombe à l'Etat.

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