Kosovo und Kostunica

PRISTINA: “Alles muss sich ändern, damit sich nichts ändert.” Dieser Aphorismus aus dem großartigen Roman Der Leopard von Prinz Lampedusa scheint gegenwärtig auf Kosovo nach dem Sturz von Milosevic anwendbar zu sein. Wird ein demokratisch gewählter Präsident in Belgrad bedeuten, dass sich für Serbien alles geändert hat, in den Beziehungen zwischen Serbien und Kosovo jedoch nichts?

Ob Serbien eine Demokratie ist oder nicht, eine Tatsache steht fest: In den kommenden fünf Jahren hat Kosovo wenig Hoffnung darauf, zu einem gedeihenden demokratischen Land zu werden. Der Grund dafür ist einfach: Kosovo war niemals ein solches. Heute ist es ein von der UN verwaltetes Gebiet, das den Wandel weg von 50 Jahren Kommunismus, zehn Arpartheid-artigen Jahren serbischer Herrschaft, und von den verheerenden Auswirkungen des Krieges erlebt. Darüber hinaus ist der langfristige Status Kosovos ungewiss: Obwohl ein UN-Protektorat, ist Kosovo formell unter der Oberherrschaft der gespaltenen Jugoslawischen Föderation von Serbien und Montenegro verblieben.

Dass sie einen demokratischen, ökonomisch florierenden Staat bilden, kann unter Umständen für Kosovaren in den kommenden Jahren noch außerhalb ihrer Reichweite liegen, da Kosovo zunächst zu einem eigenen Staat werden muss, damit Wohlstand und Demokratie Wurzeln schlagen können. Die Resolution 1244 des UN-Sicherheitsrates, das oberste hier geltende Recht, verhindert dies, solange beide Seiten – die Serben und die Kosovaren – dies nicht in Verhandlungen beschließen. Doch die Resolution 1244 schließt nicht aus, dass Kosovo eine De-facto-Regierung erhält, die wie eine wahre nationale Regierung funktioniert.

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